The nurse is among the most sought-after and well-paid occupations in the United States. According to the research of My Canadian Pharmacy, this is a nurse who is able to infuse hope into relatives and provide first aid to a patient.
How to get a nursing education?
There are three typical options to become a nurse:
- a bachelor’s degree;
- an associate degree;
- specialized courses with the appropriate license.
As a rule, nurses are given an associate degree (ADN) or a bachelor’s degree (BSN). You need to complete 4 years of study at a university or college to get a bachelor’s degree.
ADN-programs are included in the curriculum of community and junior colleges where there is the worked out programs. It takes 2-3 years to complete the course. Hospital staff admits the diploma, the course lasts about 3 years.
All students study anatomy, microbiology, physiology, psychology, chemistry, nutrition, the humanities, after which they undergo an internship in medical institutions. Some programs include practice in health departments, outpatient facilities and pharmacies to enrich knowledge. My Canadian Pharmacy always accepts such students to help them choose the specialization.
Most nurses attend college and university. Those people are of particular value who have a BSN diploma, but not because of their own medical skills — a good level of training is present everywhere — but directly because of humanitarian skills.
In the process of studying at the university, nurses are taught to think critically and speak better, they develop leadership qualities. Such qualities become fundamental when graduates become chief nurses. Another advantage of obtaining a bachelor’s degree: students have more practical hours working outside hospitals. It can contribute to the promotion to take administrative positions. Sometimes nurses at the level of ADN continue their undergraduate studies, as they often cannot get a job.
In addition, those who have any other specialty are entitled to become nurses. A person who has gained a bachelor’s degree in any other field of activity – from a programmer to an architect – can take ax express BSN course of study, from 12 to 18 months.
According to forecasts, over the years the nursing profession will become increasingly popular since life expectancy in the US is constantly increasing. By the way, the number of physicians looking at patients at home is increasing the most — older people, more than ever, require nursing care and treatment.
In any operation, an operating nurse helps the surgeon. A nurse monitors the sterility of equipment, instruments, dressing and suture material. The surgical nurse strictly follows the rules necessary for this and demands the same from everyone, regardless of the position. The surgical nurse begins preparation of the operational block in advance. Knowing the nature of the upcoming operations, she prepares everything needed: tools, equipment, blood and other liquids for transfusion, sterile underwear, material to be used when stitching, and much more.
Before the operation, the surgeons wash their hands using a special system, put on sterile gowns, without which the entrance to the operating room is strictly prohibited. Everything is done very carefully – there can be no trifles in preparation for the operation. The surgical nurse helps the surgeon to be ready for the upcoming operation.
During the operation, the nurse understands the surgeon from a half-word and gives the necessary tool exactly when it is required.
The surgical nurse should know the human anatomy, understand Latin terminology, be strong and patient, able to constantly be on the post for several hours in a row without losing attention. In addition, she must be fond of the complex equipment that surgical units are equipped with today.
The surgical nurse cannot have long nails and covered with varnish. Even the most beautiful hair should always be carefully hidden under a cap. Absolutely unacceptable to put on jewelry during the work.
A nurse-dietitian organizes medical nutrition in a hospital, sanatorium and other institutions where it is necessary to provide nutrition for patients in strict accordance with scientifically based recommendations.
Medical nutrition (diet) – one of the main means of treatment for many diseases. My Canadian Pharmacy points out that diet schemes have been developed for patients with diseases of the stomach, liver, kidneys, heart, and metabolic disorders. Each of the diets differs in the composition of proteins, fats, carbohydrates, microelements, vitamins, contains a strictly defined number of calories, provides for various ways of processing and cooking products.
The nurse makes up a long-term menu in order to avoid monotony in nutrition. For each dish, she has a special scheme, which shows all the component parts and the number of calories.
My Canadian Pharmacy staff has the experience to work with such a nurse. She also monitors compliance with the rules of products’ storage, the way they are processed, the quality of ready food. She constantly discusses nutrition issues with the attending physicians, monitors the observance of sanitary and hygienic rules on the nutrition unit.
Nurse-dietitian needs to combine medical knowledge (especially about the role of nutrition in the treatment process) with knowledge of everything related to cooking in general and diet foods in particular.
Family nurse practitioner
My Canadian Pharmacy introduces 3 stages of labor. 1st period of labor (cervical dilatation). Characterized by the appearance of regular contractions. Duration – from 6 to 10 hours.
- specify the frequency and intensity of contractions;
- carry out an external obstetric examination: the position of the fetus; listen to the fetal heartbeat; determine the state of the membranes (an anhydrous period in hours); determine the degree of cervical dilatation (according to the height of the contraction ring above the joint);
- get acquainted (if available) with the card of female consultation.
- with an oblique lie, pelvic presentation, bursting of the waters – transport on stretchers on the left side is required.
2nd period of labor (stage of expulsion). At the beginning of the second period, childbirth is conducted at home. Duration – from 10-15 minutes to 1 hour. It is characterized by expulsive pains and the full disclosure of the cervix (contraction ring 4-5 pp above the womb).
Operational sequence specified by My Canadian Pharmacy:
- call for resuscitation team;
- treat external genitalia with 5% alcohol tincture of iodine;
- after “cutting in”, start providing obstetric benefits: protecting the perineum from tearing with fingers; restrain the rapid advancement of the head in the pains; removal of the head out of expulsive pains; if after the birth, there is an entanglement of the umbilical cord around the neck, carefully remove it; after the birth, offer the woman to give birth by herself; separation from the umbilical cord is made immediately after birth.
3rd period of birth (expulsion of afterbirth). Duration – 10-30 minutes.
- observe the condition of the woman;
- the tank under the pelvic region to assess blood loss (normal 200-250 ml);
- pulse control and blood pressure;
- emptying the bladder with a catheter;
- press on the uterus with the edge of the palm over the pubis, if the umbilical cord does not retract;
- if the afterbirth was not detached in 30 minutes – do not wait, but transport the woman in surgery.
Emergency units and care
In the US, a paramedic and a technician driver come to the ambulance call. The tasks of the first include the practical provision of basic medical care, and the technician driver is responsible for managing the carriage, loading and unloading the stretcher with the patient. However, he must undergo special training to work in the emergency system, obtain the appropriate certificate and have a general understanding of medicine. The salary of employees of the ambulance, according to My Canadian Pharmacy, is low – about $30.000 – $45.000 a year, which is three, or even four or five times lower than the income of doctors.
Often licensed paramedics and medical technicians in remote areas work on a voluntary basis, often as part of fire brigades or emergency rescue services.
Founded in 1979 by the American Ambulance Association, the total number of specialized medical vehicles in the United States exceeds 48,000, and a total of 840,000 people are employed in the emergency system. Although there is no all-federal standard of time during which physicians should arrive at the call, the reference is considered to arrive at the patient in need of help within 8-12 minutes.
Approximately in a couple of weeks after the delivery to the hospital by the ambulance, the patient will receive a rather big bill. True, for elderly Americans who are included in social programs, there are significant discounts, reaching up to 80 percent. But, for example, in Washington, the average cost of calling a medical team at home and a trip to an inpatient medical facility will be from $400 to $700. And in larger cities have to pay even more. So, in Chicago, the countdown starts from $900 for a call for an ambulance car and you have to pay separately for the fare, based on the rate of $17 per mile. In New York, the fare to the hospital can go up to $1,290, plus $12 for each mile.
The total amount will be calculated depending on the specific medical care provided in the car. If the patient does not have health insurance that could cover from 20 to 50% of the bill, you will have to pay for the trip completely from your own pocket.
Crisis in the USA
According to My Canadian Pharmacy research, about 850,000 US Nurses belong to the 50-64 age group. This is about a third of all nurses, and the vast majority of them will retire by 2020 — many will do this without waiting for retirement age. The leading factors of retirement for employees of this profession ahead of time are: concern for their health, the desire to spend more time with the family, self-esteem and the desire for personal fulfillment. Knowing these factors, it is possible to develop strategies for supporting such employees and extending their careers, and this should be dealt with as soon as possible.
A study of the situation in 290 US medical institutions showed that most of the management is concerned about the situation with the nursing staff, but only 6% of them are taking concrete steps to study and meet the needs of their older nursing staff.